title = "Implementing Adaptive Game Difficulty Balancing in Serious Games",
  volume = "PP",
  issn = "2475-1502",
  doi = "10.1109/TG.2018.2791019",
  abstract = "The ability to engage and retain players is perceived as a major factor in the success of games. However the end-goal of retention differs between entertainment and serious contexts. For an entertainment game engagement and retention is linked to monetization; for a serious game this needs to persist for as long as is required for learning or behavioural objectives to be met. User engagement is strongest when a balance is achieved between difficulty and skill leading to a state of “flow”. Hence adapting difficulty could lead to increased and sustained engagement. Implementing this requires the identification of variables linked to mechanics manipulated based upon a player performance model. In some cases this is possible by adjusting simple properties of objects though more comprehensive solutions require extending or adapting content applying procedural techniques. This paper proposes a six step plan validated against two case studies: an existing serious game with easily-manipulat ed parameters and a platformer game built from scratch where additional content is required showing the process for different mechanics. To explore limitations the results of two small-scale user evaluations with 45 users in total are reported contributing to the understanding of how adaptive difficulty might be implemented and received.",
  number = "99",
  journal = "IEEE Transactions on Games",
  author = "Hendrix M. and Bellamy-Wood T. and McKay S. and Bloom V. and Dunwell I.",
  year = 2018,
  keywords = "Adaptation models Artificial intelligence Artificial Intelligence: Applications and Expert Systems - Games Entertainment industry Games Phonocardiography Pragmatics",
  pages = "1--1",
  url = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8258980/"